What can Social Psychology Contribute to the Integration of Refugees? Overview of Social Psychological Research on Forced Migration

The German Network of Social Psychology on Forced Migration and Integration (“Fachnetzwerk Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration”) has created platforms for knowledge exchange between practitioners and researchers in these respective areas. Among other activities, the network publishes articles in German on the topics of social commitment, integration, conflict moderation, trauma, discussing differences, and reducing prejudice. In this overview, we summarize these articles making the network’s knowledge more accessible for non-German speaking people interested in forced migration and integration. We arranged the articles based on the following topics: prejudice and discrimination, challenges associated with integration, possible steps in the areas of education, work, media, volunteering and donations towards more social cohesion. By doing so, we hope to spark further interest in the networks’ expertise and activities.

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Social psychological research examines how psychological and social processes influence human experiences and behaviors [1]. The field provides important insights into societal changes, for example, the integration of migrants and refugees. On the website www.fachnetzflucht.de researchers reflect on social dynamics in the context of (forced) migration and discuss the implications of social psychological research in short articles addressed especially to practitioners and interested readers outside of academia. Ultimately, they contribute to a body of knowledge that can be utilized to improve relations between groups and strengthen social cohesion. We summarize the content of all these articles to enhance its accessibility for an English-speaking audience and to facilitate exchange between researchers with transfer ideas across diverse countries.

Ingroup vs. Outgroup

An important premise in social-psychological research is the idea that people tend to group each other into “us” (the ingroup) and “the others” (the outgroup). If someone shares characteristics and experiences with me that I deem relevant, I may think, “we’re on the same team”. For example, they look like me, live in the same neighborhood, or like the same sports team – it may be relatively easy to see our similarities and think of them as “one of us”. At the same time, people can be quick to judge others as different. If someone doesn’t look like me, lives in a different neighborhood, or likes the wrong sports team, I think, they’re “one of them”. This categorization leads people to think of each other as members of separate groups. In the context of migration, these categorizations can be the basis for social tensions and issues.

Locals often think of themselves and migrants as separate groups. They often overestimate the differences between their culture and the migrants’ cultures [2], and tend to generalize their knowledge of migrant cultures and disregard the diversity among migrants – in the sense of “they are all the same” [3].

Thinking in this binary of “us” versus “them” means that the complexity of a person and a group of people is denied [4]. The migrant is seen as a migrant only while other identities and individual characteristics are ignored.

The network’s articles highlight the importance of seeing people as complex human beings and point out the many identities one person holds. For example, they address gender [5], sexuality [6], and ethnicity [7] as relevant identities that shape a person’s experiences.

Unfortunately, this complexity oftentimes gets lost in conversations. Instead, migrants are seen as one distinctive group that is supposedly very different from the locals. They are not only seen as different but as worse. Locals tend to assign negative characteristics to the migrant groups. For example, they may see them as dangerous or incompetent [8].

For migrants, these beliefs may result in various experiences of discrimination, from subtle to more blatant forms. For example, prejudice towards marginalized groups such as migrants and refugees is reflected and reproduced in our everyday language [9]. German terms like “Flüchtlingswelle” (engl., “refugee wave”) or “Asyltourismus” (engl., “asylum tourism”) reflect and contribute to the devaluation of refugees [10]. Even though the devaluation is subtle, it fits into the bigger picture of locals overgeneralizing and depreciating migrants.


Related to these inter-group relations is the question of how to facilitate “integration”. Integration can be understood as creating societal and cultural unity among migrants and local communities [11]. Social psychological research examines premises and processes of integration. For example, research emphasizes that both locals and migrants need to be willing to connect and make compromises [11]. They would combine elements of different cultures, and both migrants and locals would invest in becoming one community.

In practice, efforts are often rather one-sided. Locals hold high expectations towards migrants wanting them to adjust to the local culture. Locals may say “integration” but actually mean “assimilation”: expecting migrants to give up their heritage cultures and adopt the host culture [11].

Expecting migrants to give up their heritage cultures can be tremendously harmful for their well-being and sense of belonging [12, 13, 14]. Thus, it is crucial to call out potential counterproductive and unrealistic expectations by locals and to find alternative ways towards actual integration.

Locals can do their part by being open to change in their own cultures. Communities do change as new people and cultural elements are brought into the community. They can try and view the change as enriching rather than threatening [11].

Integration requires space for migrants to explore and develop new cultural identities. Migrants may combine different cultural elements or switch their cultural identities across contexts. It takes time and energy to develop a multicultural identity. Long-term, it would benefit their individual as well as collective well-being [15]. Local communities can support migrants in their development of multicultural identities by signaling compatibility of their cultures. It is important to provide spaces where migrants can express their heritage cultures. For instance, in school environments that are appreciative of diversity, students experience less discrimination and higher well-being than students from schools where diversity is less appreciated [15]. This example supports the notion that communities should work towards building environments that are appreciative of cultural diversity.

Promoting Inclusion

One strategy to enhance integration is thus creating diverse and inclusive environments. For example, schools can work towards an environment where all students can participate and feel that they belong [16]. Contact between diverse students would be an essential part of this environment. Intentional planning and educators who can moderate the contact situations facilitate such environments [17]. Appointing multilingual teachers and mentors as contact persons for students with migrant and refugee backgrounds or developing culturally sensitive curricula are also steps in the right direction.

Similarly, more efforts to integrate migrants in the labor sector are needed. Employers and employees in leadership positions can, for example, use their organizational power to mark prejudice and discrimination as unacceptable [2]. Furthermore, they can change the organizational structures considering migrants’ needs and potentials by starting with fair recruitment processes and training for Human Resources staff regarding migrant workers’ rights [18]. Other approaches would be to organize workshops or peer tandems for language exchange and implementing systems to reduce language barriers. Taking a stance in the work place and prioritizing structural changes takes courage but can effectively reduce prejudice and discrimination [19].

School and work places may also benefit from mediators who can moderate during intercultural conflicts [20]. Members of different cultural groups may hold different priorities. Through active listening, mediators can try and understand those differences and find solutions that bring those priorities together. Mediators can also hold space for admitting past mistakes and rebuilding positive relationships. To build trust with the different community members, it is crucial for mediators to remain respectful with either party, even when they personally strongly disagree with their positions [20].

Media Influences and Entertainment Education

Media plays an important role in the portrayal and perception of migrants and thus influences intergroup relations. Negative depictions of refugees can influence people to be less welcoming and supportive towards refugees [10]. In recent years, fake news about refugees have spread through online media [21]. This indicates that more interventions building media literacy are needed to improve intergroup relations [22].

Entertainment education is one effective approach to reduce prejudice [23]. Entertainment education uses storytelling as a tool to promote understanding of marginalized groups such as refugees. Also, entertainment education can facilitate identification with the refugees and evoke positive emotions towards them. Ideally, these processes reduce the consumer’s prejudice towards refugees [23].

Since diversity trainings and similar interventions are mostly attended by volunteers, entertainment education has the potential to reach people who typically do not participate in other interventions, such as people with high prejudice and authoritarian attitudes. These might not voluntarily attend an intervention related to prejudice reduction or seek direct contact to outgroup members like migrants, but entertainment education would be a way to serve as an introduction to the idea of considering future direct contact [24], sometimes leading locals to become volunteers in the area of refugee aid.

Support from Volunteers

Unfortunately, the governmental and non-governmental financial resources do not suffice to fully enable the integration and inclusion of migrants [25]. Therefore, society depends on citizens who can offer their voluntary services for the support of migrants in need. Some of the network’s articles discuss the importance of volunteering. For example, unaccompanied refugee minors can benefit from a volunteer guardian or mentor because they may, for instance, facilitate the refugees’ access to education, the labor market, or more independent housing [26]. As temporary refugee homes are often overcrowded and underserved, they can also benefit from additional personal resources [27]. Local community-based organizations would know best where volunteers can be placed to have a positive impact on the community.

When organizations aim to recruit volunteers, they may consider the following: People need to be aware of a problem and the need for support before they would consider volunteering [28]. Therefore, communication about the need for extra support is important for the recruitment process. To elicit the interest of possible volunteers, the organizations should communicate specific options for action, portray positive role models, and explain how people can benefit from volunteering [28]. To increase the chance of finding a good fit for the volunteers, organizations should be transparent in the recruitment process [29] [30]. Throughout the volunteer work, organizations should actively offer resources to the volunteers that are tailored to their motives for volunteering and arising needs [29] [30]. For example, volunteers and refugees can benefit from workshops about self-reflection [29] [31], trauma [32] [33], resilience [34], and autonomy support [35] [36].

Support Through Donations

People who do not have the interest or capacity to volunteer in the service of migrants and refugees can still support them in other ways, for example through donations. A low donation threshold, an official acknowledgement and appreciation of the donation, an appealing call for donation, and high probability that the donation goal will be achieved increase the chances that people donate [37]. Furthermore, potential donators’ values, current mood, their identification with the donation goal, related role models, and duration of needed support will influence their decision [37]. Two relevant factors affecting decisions to donate are the refugees’ reason for displacement and their identity [37]. For example, studies showed that people are more likely to donate to a cause that is relevant for their ingroup. So, people who are not refugees can be encouraged to donate by reminding them of identities that they share with refugees. For example, someone may relate to refugees more if they are informed that refugees worked in the same job as they do [37]. Lastly, the reputation of an organization that is collecting donations will influence whether someone is willing to donate for the support of migrants and refugees [37].


To summarize, the articles of the German network “Social Psychology on Forced Migration and Integration” cover a range of topics related to migration and particularly forced migration and build the foundation for the transfer days for researchers and practitioners that the network organizes [38]. The articles discuss issues like prejudice, discrimination, marginalization, victimization, and trauma. They point out ways to improve intergroup relations, mediate conflicts, and promote well-being through prevention and intervention. These can be located in different societal sectors such as education, work, media, or community-based organizations. Overall, the authors offer diverse insights into theoretical and practical issues and solution approaches. We hope their articles help practitioners to reflect upon their work, and, at the same time, serve as a starting point for further discussions among researchers about the practical relevance of social psychological research.


As the article number is growing, please refer to the website of the network for further information on the mentioned articles as well as for updates and new input on research and practical question: https://www.fachnetzflucht.de/alle-beitraege/


1Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychologie (n.d.). Was ist Sozialpsychologie?. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychologie. https://www.dgps.de/fachgruppen/ sozialpsychologie

2 Hechler, S. & Jäger, F. (2020). Vorurteile erkennen und reduzieren. Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. http://www.fachnetzflucht.de/ vorurteile-erkennen-und-reduzieren

3Fetz, K. (2018). „Die sind doch alle gleich!“ – Warum geflüchtete Menschen oft als homogene Gruppe betrachtet werden und welche Maßnahmen zu einer individuellen Wahrnehmung beitragen können. Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht. de/die-sind-doch-alle-gleich-warum-gefluechtete-menschen-oft-als-homogene-gruppe-betrachtet-werden-und-welche-massnahmen-zu-einer-individuelleren-wahrnehmung-beitragen-koenne/

4Braun, M. & Lux, A. (2021). Wie können wir über Unterschiede und Gemeinsamkeiten sprechen ohne Vorurteile zu verstärken? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. http://www.fachnetzflucht.de/ wie-koennen-wir-ueber-unterschiede-und-gemeinsamkeiten-sprechen-ohne-vorurteile-zu-verstaerken

5Fleischmann, A. (2020). Geschlechterstereotype – Wie sehen sie aus und was kann man dagegen tun? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. http://www.fachnetzflucht. de/geschlechterstereotype-wie-sehen-sie-aus-und-was-kann-man-dagegen-tun

6Klocke, U. (2021). Verfolgt, diskriminiert, ignoriert – Wie kann man queere Geflüchtete unterstützen? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. http://www. fachnetzflucht.de/verfolgt-diskriminiert-ignoriert-wie-kann-man-queere-gefluechtete-unterstuetzen

7Geschke, D. & Diekmann, J. (2022). Wie kann Geflüchteten geholfen werden, die von Gewalt und Drohungen betroffen sind? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht.de/wie-kann-gefluechteten-geholfen-werden-die-von-gewalt-und-drohungen-betroffen-sind/

8Froehlich, L., & Schulte, I. (2019). Warmth and competence stereotypes about immigrant groups in Germany. Plos one, 14(9), e0223103. https://doi. org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223103

9Winter, K. (2018). Abstrakt oder konkret: Wie lassen sich Vorurteile durch eine geeignete Wortwahl reduzieren? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht.de/abstrakt-oder-konkret-wie-lassen-sich-vorurteile-durch-eine-geeignete-wortwahl-reduzieren

10Frischlich, L. (2018). Warum haben Menschen scheinbar weniger Mitleid mit Geflüchteten als mit manch anderen Katastrophenopfern? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht.de/warum-haben-menschen-scheinbar-weniger-mitleid-mit-geflüchteten-als-mit-manch-anderen-katastrophenopfern

11Hellmann, J. H., Übergünne-Otte, L., Sandal-Önal, E., & Zick, A. (2023). „Wie integrieren?!“ Was meinen wir überhaupt damit, wenn wir die Integration Geflüchteter fördern wollen? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht.de/wie-integrieren-was-meinen-wir-ueberhaupt-damit-wenn-wir-die-integration-gefluechteter-foerdern-wollen/

12Pfundmair, M. (2021). Wie entsteht islamistische Radikalisierung – und wie kann sie verhindert werden? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www. fachnetzflucht.de/wie-entsteht-islamistische-radikalisierung-und-wie-kann-sie-verhindert-werden

13van Egmond, M. & Hegmans, J. (2018a). Wie können wir Zugehörigkeit von Geflüchteten fördern? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht.de/zugehoerigkeit-als-schutz-vor-radikalisierung-2/

14van Egmond, M. & Hegmans, J. (2018b). Zugehörigkeit als Schutz vor Radikalisierung? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht.de/ zugehoerigkeit-als-schutz-vor-radikalisierung-3/

15Jugert, P., Civitillo, S., Ialuna, F., Kaiser, M. J. & Mayer, A.-M. (2023). Wie kann Angst vor dem Verlust der eigenen Kultur bei Geflüchteten begegnet werden? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. http://www.fachnetzflucht.de/wie-kann-angst-vor-dem-verlust-der-eigenen-kultur-bei-gefluech-teten-begegnet-werden

16Alhaddad, L., Schachner, M., Juang, L., & Pertl, N. (2021). Wie kann die Integration geflüchteter Kinder und Jugendlicher in der Schule gefördert werden? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. http://www.fachnetzflucht.de/wie-kann-die-integration-gefluechteter-kinder-und-jugendlicher-in-der-schule-gefoerdert-werden

17Kotzur, P. (2018). Kontakt zwischen Geflüchteten und Einheimischen – wie kann man für die Entspannung von Beziehungen zwischen verschiedenen Bevölkerungsgruppen sorgen? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht. de/kontakt-zwischen-gefluechteten-und-einheimischen-wie-kann-man-fuer-die-entspannung-von-beziehungen-zwischen-verschiedenen-bevoelkerungsgruppen-sorgen/

18Reif, J., Spieß, E., & Berger, R. (2019). Wie kann die Integration von Arbeitsmigrant*innen am Arbeitsplatz gefördert werden? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht.de/wie-kann-die-integration-von-arbeitsmigrantinnen-am-arbeitsplatz-gefordert-werden

19Halmburger, A. & Baumert, A. (2018). Zivilcourage fördern – Praktische Anregungen für den Umgang mit Rassismus. Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht.de/ zivilcourage-foerdern-praktische-anregungen-fuer-den-umgang-mit-rassismus/

20Schuster, C. (2018). Konflikte über unterschiedliche Interessen und Werte lösen. Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht. de/ konflikte-ueber-unterschiedliche-interessen-und-werte-loesen/

21Hechler, S. & Renger, D. (2020). Gerechte Sonderbehandlung: Was fördert die Akzeptanz durch Geflüchtete und Einheimische? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht.de/ gerechte- sonderbehandlung-was-fordert-die-akzeptanz-durch-gefluchtete-und-einheimische

22Bolesta, D. S. (2022). Wie kann man mit Falschmeldungen über Geflüchtete umgehen? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht. de/wie-kann-man-mit-falschmeldungen-ueber-gefluechtete-umgehen/

23Schäfer, L., Siem, B., & Rohmann, A. (2023). Wie können Vorurteile gegenüber Geflüchteten und Migrant*innen abgebaut werden? Entertainment Education als Interventionsansatz. Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. http://www.fachnetzflucht.de/wie-koennen-vorurteile-gegenueber-gefluechteten-und-migrantinnen-abgebaut-werden-entertainment-education-als-interventionsansatz

24Pollmanns, C. (2018). Autoritäre Einstellungen und Diskriminierung: Wie Kontakt mit Ausländer*innen auch für (einige) Migrationsgegner*innen positive Wirkung zeigen kann. Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. http://www.fachnetzflucht.de/autoritaere-einstellungen-und-diskriminierung-wie-kontakt-mit-auslaenderinnen-auch-fuer-einige-migrationsgegnerinnen-positive-wirkung-zeigen-kann

25Fratzke, S. & Dorst, E. (2019). Volunteers and sponsors: A catalyst for refugee integration? Migration Policy Institute. https://www.migration policy.org/research/volunteers-sponsors-refugee-integration

26Scholaske, L. (2023). Warum ist ehrenamtliches Engagement für unbegleitete minderjährige Geflüchtete wichtig und welche Möglichkeiten gibt es? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetz flucht.de/warum-ist-ehrenamtliches-engagement-fuer-unbegleitete-minderjaehrige-gefluechtete-wichtig-und-welche-moeglichkeiten-gibt-es/

27Boileau, L. (2020). Kann ein gezieltes Belegungsmanagement zur Konfliktreduktion in Gemeinschaftsunterkünften beitragen? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht.de/kann-ein-gezieltes-belegungsmanagement-zur-konfliktreduktion-in-gemeinschaftsunterkunften-beitragen

28Strubel, I. T. (2022). Wie können Menschen für ein Engagement für Geflüchtete und mit Geflüchteten gewonnen werden? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht.de/wie-koennen-menschen-fuer-ein-engagement-fuer-gefluechtete-und-mit-gefluechteten-gewonnen-werden/

29Andreatta, P., Unterluggauer, K., Mitterhofer, H. (2018). Hinweise für die Unterstützung von Helfer*innen der Geflüchteten. Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht.de/ hinweise-fuer-die-unterstuetzung-von-helferinnen-der-gefluechteten/

30Siem, B. (2018). Wie können Organisationen dazu beitragen, dass Ehrenamtliche sich langfristig engagieren und nicht demotiviert werden? – Der funktionale Ansatz ehrenamtlichen Engagements. Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht. de/wie-koennen-organisationen-dazu-beitragen-dass-ehrenamtliche-sich-langfristig-engagieren-und-nicht-demotiviert-werden-der-funktionale-ansatz-ehrenamtlichen-engagements

31Roth, J. (2018). (Wie) kann ich vermeiden, dass ich geflüchtete Menschen stereotypisiere oder sie vorurteilsbehaftet einschätze? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht.de/wie-kann-ich-vermeiden-dass-ich-gefluechtete-menschen-stereotypisiere-oder-sie-vorurteilsbehaftet-einschaetze/

32Andreatta, P. (2018a). Die Bedeutung von Kriegs- und Fluchttrauma: Wie kann auf sozialer und kommunal-politischer Ebene die Dynamik von Trauma durchbrochen werden? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht.de/die-bedeutung-von-kriegs-und-fluchttrauma-wie-kann-auf-sozialer-und-kommunal-politischer-ebene-die-dynamik-von-trauma-durchbrochen-werden/

33Andreatta, P. & Unterluggauer, K. (2019). Trauma und seine Folgen. Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht.de/trauma-und-seine-folgen/

34Andreatta, P. (2018b). Trauma und Resilienz: Ein Modell zur psycho–sozialen Unterstützung Geflüchteter. Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration.  http://www.fachnetz-flucht.de/trauma–und–resilienz–ein–modell–zur–psycho–sozialen–unterstuetzung–gefluechteter/

35Ksenofontov, I. & Becker, J. C. (2021). „Wenigstens ein Danke“ – Dankbarkeitserwartungen können Migrant*innen schaden. Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. http://www.fachnetzflucht.de/wenigstens-ein-danke-dankbarkeitserwartungen-koennen-migrantinnen-schaden

36Urschler, D. F. (2022). Dos and Don’ts bei Unterstützung von Geflüchteten: Wie man Autonomie und soziale Beziehungen fördern kann. Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht. de/dos-and-donts-bei-unterstuetzung-von-gefluechteten-wie-man-autonomie-und-soziale-beziehungen-foerdern-kann

37Hühnel, I. (2018). Wie kann man die Spendenbereitschaft für Geflüchtete erhöhen? Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. https://www.fachnetzflucht.de/wie-kann-man-die-spendenbereitschaft-fuer-gefluechtete-erhoehen/

38Landmann, H., Winter, K., Froehlich, L., Klocke, U., Hechler, S., Niesta Kayser, D., Knab, N., Hess, F.M., Bender, R., & Hellmann, J. (2024). Transfer between science and practice: Findings from the Network of Social Psychology on Forced Migration and Integration. Z’Flucht, 24(1). (Manuscript accepted for publication)


Bitte zitieren als: Griesberg, M. C., Landmann, H., & Hellmann, J. H. (2024). What can Social Psychology Contribute to the Integration of Migration? Overview of Social Psychological Research on Forced Migration. Magazin des Fachnetzwerks Sozialpsychologie zu Flucht und Integration. Online abrufbar unter http://www.fachnetzflucht.de/what-can-social-psychology-contribute-to-the-integration-of-refugees-overview-of-social-psychological-research-on-forced-migration